From Agepedia

Jump to: navigation , search

BRAZIL ; a country of vast extent, and one of the richest regions of the earth, comprising the eastern and central parts of South America; bounded Colombia, Guiana, and the Atlantic ocean, E. and S. E. by the Atlantic ocean, and W. by Buenos Ay res, or the United Provinces of La Plata, Bolivia and Peril.The following table exhibits the population of the several capitanias^ or provinces, as stated by Mr. Brackenridge, who visited South America in the years 1817 and 1818. Provinces. Pop. Chief Tenons. Pernambuco... 550,000 ... Pernambuco. Bahia.........500,000... St. Salvador. Minas Geraes.. 380,000... Villa Rica. Rio Janeiro ... 400,000... Rio Janeiro.St. Paul....... 300,000... St. Paul. Rio Grande ... 250,000... Portalagre. Maranham .... 200,000... St. Luis. Para...........150,000 ... Para. Matto Grosso .. 100,000... Cuyaba. Goyas.........170,000 ... Villa Boa. Total, 3,000,000In 1826, the country was divided anew, so as to constitute nineteen provinces. Of the population, as stated by Mr. Brackenridge, 1,000,000 are supposed to be of European origin or descent, 1,200,000 Negroes, and 800,000 subdued Indians; the unsubdued Indians not being included. A later estimate makes the number of Negro slaves, 1,800,000. MalteBrun estimates the population of B. at 3,800,000 ; Hassel and Humboldt, at 4 000,000.The principal rivers are the Amazon, Madeira, Topayas, Xingu, To* cantins, Negro, St. Francisco, Paraguay, Parana, and Uraguay.There is scarcely to be found on the globe a finer country than B.; one blessed with a more genial climate, or a more fertile soil; more happily diversified with wood and water, or with abundance of navigable rivers; or more famed for its precious produce of gold and diamonds. It comprises within its limits nearly all the most valued productions of the earth. Viewed from the sea, the country appears rugged and mountainous; but, on a nearer approach, its appearance is highly romantic and picturesque, clothed as it is with the most luxuriant vegetation, its hills covered with thick woods, and its valleys with a verdure which never fades. Towards the interior, the land rises, by gentle gradations, to the height of from 3 to 6,000 feet above the level of the sea; and, in these temperate regions, European fruits and grain are raised in abundance, while the intermediate valleys are extremely favorable to the production of sugar, coffee, and all kinds of tropical produce. A large part of the interior is overspread with an impenetrable forest, the trees being closely interwoven with brushwood and shrubs, and covered with creeping plants, adorned with beautiful flowers, thus giving a peculiar and rich appearance to the scenery. The forests abound in a great variety of useful and beautiful wood, adapted for dyeing, cabinetwork and shipbuilding. They contain numerous wild animals. The climate, in the neighborhood of the Amazon and in the northern parts, is hot, but tempered by the humidity of the air; in the southern parts, it is temperate, and generally healthy.B. has been long celebrated for gold and diamonds, which abound in the higher regions of the interior, and are chiefly found in the beds of the mountain torrents, where the stream is most rapid. Most of the streams that rise from the chain of mountains which extend through the province of Minas Geraes are rich, especially near their sources, in gold and diamonds. The towns of St. Paul, Villa Rica, Cuyaba, and others in the interior, have grown out of mining establishments. Tejuco is the chief town of the principal diamond district.Brazil was discovered by Pedro Alvarez Cabral. Emanuel, king of Portugal, had equipped a squadron for a voyage to the East Indies, under the command of Cabral. The admiral, quitting Lisbon, March 9, 1500, fell in accidentally, April 24, with the continent of South America, which he at first supposed to be a large island on the coast of Africa. In this conjecture he was soon undeceived, when the natives came in sight. Having discovered a good harbor, he anchored his vessels, and called the bay Puerto Seguro. On the next day, he landed with a body of troops, and, having erected the cross, took possession of the country in the name of his sovereign, and called it Santa Cruz; but the name was afterwards altered by king Emanuel to that of Brazil, from the redwood which the country produces.The Portuguese entertained, for some time, no very favorable opinion of the country, not having been able to find there either gold or silver; and, accordingly, they sent thither none but convicts, and women of abandoned character. Two ships were annually sent from Portugal, to carry to the new world the refuse of the human race, and to receive from thence cargoes of parrots and dyewoods. Ginger was afterwards added, but, in a short time, prohibited, lest the cultivation of it might interfere with the sale of the same article from India. In 1548, the Jews of Portugal, being banished to B., procured sugarcanes from Madeira, and began the cultivation of that article. The court of Lisbon began to perceive that a colony might be beneficial without producing gold or silver, and sent over a governor to regulate and superintend it. This was Thomas de Souza, a wise and able man. De Souza found it very difficult to succeed in inducing the natives to fix on settled habitations, and to submit to the Portuguese government. Dissatisfaction ensued, which at length terminated in war. De Souza did not bring with him a sufficient number of men to conclude hostilities speedily. By building St. Salvador, in 1549, at the bay of All Saints, he established a central and rallying point for the colony; but the great object of reducing the Indians to submission was effected by the Jesuits, who gained their affections by presents and acts of kindness.The increasing prosperity of B., which became visible to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century, excited the envy of the French, Spaniards and Dutch, successively. The latter, however, were the principal enemies with whom the Portuguese had to contend for the dominion of B. Their admiral, Willekens, in 1624, took possession of the country in the name of the United Provinces. Having plundered the people of St. Salvador, he returned to Europe, leaving a strong garrison. The Spaniards next sent out a formidable fleet, laid siege to St. Salvador, and compelled the Dutch to surrender. When the affairs of the Dutch assumed a more favorable aspect at home, they despatched admiral Henry Lonk, in the beginning of 1630, to attempt the entire conquest of B. He succeeded in reducing Pernambuco, and, on his return to Europe, left behind him troops which reduced, in 1633, 1634 and 1635, the provinces of Temeraca, Paraiba and Rio Grande. These, as well as Pernambuco, furnished yearly a large quantity of sugar, a great deal of wood for dyeing, and other commodities. The Dutch now determined to conquer all B., and intrusted Maurice of Nassau with the direction of the enterprise. This distinguished officer reached the place of his destination in the beginning of 1637, and subjected Seara, Seregippe, and the greater part of Bahia. Seven of the fifteen provinces which composed the colony had already submitted to them, when they were suddenly checked by the revolution, which removed Philip IV from the throne of Portugal, and gave to the Portuguese independence, and a native sovereign. The Dutch, then, as enemies of the Spaniards, became friends to the Portuguese, and the latter confirmed the title of the Dutch to the seven provinces, of which they were in possession. This division gave rise to the name of the Brazils, in place of the former appellation. The Dutch government soon began to oppress the Portuguese colonists, who, after an obstinate contest, drove them out of several of the provinces.. Finding they were not able to retain possession of the country, the Dutch ceded all their interest to the Portuguese for a pecuniary compensation. The dominion of Portugal was now extended over all B., which, during the 18th century, remained in the peaceful possession of the Portuguese. The value of B. to Portugal has been on the increase since the discovery of the gold mines, in 1698, and the discovery of the diamond mines, in 1782. Up to the year 1810, B. had sent to Portugal 14,280 cwt. of gold, and 2100 pounds of diamonds, which foreign countries, and especially Great Britain, at last succeeded in purchasing, at the Lisbon market. Rio Janeiro now became the mart for the proceeds of the Brazilian mines and native productions. But the administration was any thing but adapted to promote the prosperity of the country. The attention of the government was turned almost ex clusively to the gold washings, and to the working of the diamond mines; and the policy of the administration consisted in the exaction of taxes and duties, which were collected from the fortified ports, to which trade was solely confined. Foreigners were excluded, or jealously watched, and trade was paralysed by numerous restrictions. In the interior, the lands situated on the great rivers, after being surveyed, were frequently presented, after the year 1640, by the kings of the house of Braganza, to the younger sons of the Portuguese nobility, whom the system of entails excluded from the prospect of inheritance. These grantees enlisted adventurers, purchased Negro slaves by thousands, and subjected the original inhabitants, or drove them from their districts, and ruled their dominions with almost unlimited sway. The missions of the Jesuits also received similar donations from the kings. They organized a brave militia from the converted savages and their descendants, and bore the sword and the cross farther and farther into the interior. Equally independent with the secular lords of the soil, they united the converted savages in villages and parishes along the rivers. The celebrated Jesuit Vieyra introduced the cultivation of spices, in which Holland alone had hitherto traded. As these Brazilian proprietors defrayed, from their own means, the abovementioned indemnifications made to the Dutch, the Portuguese government, in return, confirmed and enlarged all the privileges of the ancient planters, extending them to the present and future possessions of these noble families. But, in the end, the government multiplied its own monopolies, and assumed prerogatives interfering with the interests of the ancient and rich landlords. Even from 18*08 to 1821, as long as the court resided in Rio Janeiro, the Portuguese by birth continued to have the preference, in the high offices of state, before the chief native families; and the system of taxing the productions of B., and the importation of articles needed by the Brazilian nobility for themselves and slaves, was even extended. The government finally placed obstacles in the way of increasing the number of the latter, which the rich landlords deemed indispensable for the establishment of new plantations. The vassals, moreover, always had a stumblingblock in their way in the fiscal prerogative of the court, that the land which the vassal called his own, but which he had hitherto neglected to search 21* for gold, or for diamonds, in case of any future discovery of such treasures, should be the property of the crown, or, at least, the object of high taxation. In the grants of thie ancient plantations, the crown had not indeed provided for such a contingency, and had reserved no such rights. Even the humanity of the government, in attempting to ameliorate by laws the condition of the slaves, was a subject of offence, because it appeared to the lords to be an injury to their legal property to proceed in such a matter without their consent. Out of Rio Janeiro, in the more northerly and more fertile section, the number of young merchants in the large maritime cities and their vicinity was greatly increased by emigrations from states where more freedom of thought was enjoyed than in B. Many came even from Germany. These adventurers5 bent on gain, naturally felt burthenecl by the heavy system of taxation, and by the monopolies of the crown. They carried on the smuggling trade to such a degree, that they lived, in fact, in open war with the government. In addition to these malcontents, there were many disbanded soldiers, who had embarked from Portugal, in the hope of being rewarded by the court for their services, but, from the poverty of the finances, found that they could obtain nothing but land, which was of no value to these warriors. Moreover, many Europeans emigrated to Bahia and Pernambuco, who, though destitute, were not altogether uninformed, and who desired to make their fortune there, some way or other. The lower class of the native clergy, too, were very much dissatisfied, because, even while the court resided in B., Portuguese noblemen received the most important ecclesiastical offices. Without ascribing to the Brazilians any democratic propensities, all these circum stances must have awakened the desire of independence in their breasts, as much as it augmented their hatred of the Portuguese. From these two causes, a conflict of parties of several years' duration has lately taken place, the result of which is the new empire.The removal of the Portuguese government to B., Jan. 19, 1808), when the royal family landed in Bahia, whence it transferred its residence to Rio Janeiro in March, till the departure of king John VI to Lisbon, April 26, 1821), was the commencement of the prosperity of B. As early as Jan. 28,1808, all the ports of B. were opened for the unconditional entrance of all friendly and neutral vessels, and for the exportation of Brazilian productions, under certain duties, with the sole exception of Brazil wood. B. now entered, also, into an immediate connexion with Germany, which had an equally beneficial influence on its agriculture, intellectual improvement and commerce. The treaty of alliance and commerce concluded with England at Rio Janeiro, Feb. 19, 1810, permitted the British even to build and repair vessels of war in the harbors of B.; and the then princeregent of Portugal promised never to introduce the inquisition into B., and to cooperate in earnest to effect the abolition of the slavetrade, excepting such as was carried on in the Portuguese possessions in Africa. The decree of Nov. 18, 1814, next allowed all nations free intercourse with B. In 1815, the princeregent promised B. independence and equal privileges with Portugal. Dec. 16, 1815, he made it a monarchy. Finally, by the marriage of the crownprince (now emperor) of B., don Pedro, with the archduchess Leopoldine, daughter of Francis I. of Austria, Nov. 6, 1817, Germany was in various ways brought into contact with B. The government in Rio Janeiro now allowed the free prosecution of natural researches. Thus Mawe, an Englishman, was permitted to examine the diamond mines; the chevalier Eschwege, afterwards overseer of the cabinet of minerals in Rio, was enabled to examine the mountains of Minas Geraes at Villa Rica; and the latest work on B., by Martius and Spix, contains similar evidence how zealous even a royal minister, Conde da Barca, is in promoting scientific investigations. As B., by reason of its soil and climate, may become the chief mart of all colonial commodities, the government has encouraged, since 1809, the settlement of strangers, and has granted to foreigners, at a small price, large tracts of land (cismarias), of a league (22,500 feet) in breadth, and three leagues in length, for the cultivation of sugar, coffee, cotton, &c, as well as wheat, rice and maize, which afford here annually two crops. Swiss and Germans (such as Freyreiss, the baron Busche, and Paycke of Hamburg) have therefore founded large settlements here. According to Langsdorf, who published Observations on Brazil, at Heidelburg, 1821, Welsh com generally yields in B. 130 fold, and rice 80 fold. The coffeetree, which, in the West Indies, yields annually, on an average, 1^ pounds of coffee, in B., yields at least 2 or 3, and not unfrequently 5 or 6 pounds. But the want of industry, at that time, rendered the means of living in the capital and neighborhood extremely dear, while the total absence of highways, and other means of facilitating transportation, deprived the products of the' interior of almost all their value. Without a considerable capital, no foreigner can cultivate the land bestowed on him, and B. is as yet far removed from that equality of rights, which secures to each one the full use of his means, as well as from that toleration, which affords protection and freedom of conscience to every creed. The royal decree of March 16, 1820, which encourages the settlement of foreigners, by an exemption from taxes for four years, will never, therefore, while these impediments exist, produce the results which have followed the colonization of North Americaa country, in other respects, less inviting. The foreign relations of B., of late years, have not been altogether of a peaceful nature. After the conclusion of the congress of Vienna, Spain refused to cede Olivenza to Portugal ; on which account, the Banda Oriental, with its capital, Monte Video, an important portion of the Spanish province of Buenos Ayres, was taken possession of by B.; and maintained with effect against the claims of the republic of Buenos Ayres, after it had attained independence. An insurrection in Perna\nbuco, in April, 1817, where a party raised the republican standard, was suppressed by the Portuguese troops stationed in B. But when the revolution broke out in Portugal, Aug. 1820, having for its object the establishment of a constitution, the Portuguese troops in B. also obtained a constitution in behalf of the latter country. Don Pedro, the crownprince, proclaimed the acceptation of the Portuguese constitution in the name of himself and father, Feb. 26, 1821. King John VI now commancled^ the choice of deputies (March 7th) to meet with the cortes assembled in Lisbon, and was desirous to embark with them for that city. But, the bank being unable to make the necessaiy advances of money, a bloody insurrection ensued. The king therefore changed the bank into a national bank, and, to defray the sums loaned, appropriated to it the charge of the diamond mines, and the regulation of the trade in diamonds. The king soon after (April 21 and 22) saw himself compelled to order the military to disperse the assembly of electors, who demanded the adoption of the Spanish constitution. On the other hand, he repeated the rati flcation of the (then incomplete) Portuguese constitution, and, April 22, appointed his son don Pedro princeregent of B. He now embarked for Portugal, April 26. But, as the Portuguese cortes was not willing to grant the entire equality of civil and political relations demanded by the Brazilians, and, without waiting for the arrival of the Brazilian deputation, had framed the articles of the constitution which related to B., and subsequently rejected the additional articles proposed by the Brazilian deputies, and, finally, had expressly declared, that B. was to be divided into governments, and ruled by the ministry of state at Lisbon, and the princeregent was to be recalled to Portugal,¦ such violent convulsions were excited in Rio Janeiro, and various parts of B., Dec, . 1821, that it was explicitly declared to the princeregent, that his departure would lie the signal for establishing an independent republic. o The prince, therefore, resolved to remain in B., and gave a public explanation of his reasons, Jan. 9th, 1822, to his father, to the cortes in Portugal, and to the people of B. The Portuguese troops were removed from B. The princeregent assumed, May 13th, 1822, the title of perpetual defender of B., and, in June, convened a national assembly, composed of 100 deputies, to frame a separate constitution for the country. The cortes in Lisbon, on the other hand, declared this constitution void, Sept. 19th, 1822, and demanded the return of the princeregent to Europe, on pain of forfeiting his right to the throne. Meanwhile, the national assembly of B. had declared the separation of that country from Portugal, Aug. 1, 1822, and, Oct. 12, appointed don Pedro the constitutional emperor of B. The new emperor retained, at the same time, the title of perpetual defender of B. Soon after the establishment of the empire, began the struggle with the republican party. In this party were many freemasons. Don Pedro, who had proclaimed himself, shortly before, grand master of all the freemasons in B., ordered that all the lodges should be closed, and the congress, which he had promised to assemble for the purpose of framing a constitution, was not convened. At that time, the two brothers Andrade, Jose J^onifacio, minister of foreign affairs and of the interior, and Martin F. Ribeiro, minister of finances, especially the former, possessed the entire confidence of the emperor. The most difficult matter was so effect his recognition in Europe ; for ion Pedro had acquired the new dignityin consequence of the principle of the sovereignty of the people in a colony separated from the mother country; and it was also made a question, whether he should not renounce his claims to the crown of Portugal. His father, indeed, when he left B., April 26,1821, had given him full powers to do all that might be necessary to preserve this country to the house of Braganza. The mission, nevertheless, of major Schaffer to Vienna, could not procure the acknowledgment of the new emperor by his fatherinlaw, the emperor of Austria. The Brazilian troops, in the meantime, conquered Monte Video, which still had a Portuguese garrison, in Dec, 1823, after which the Banda Oriental was united with B., under the name of Cisplatino, as also Bahia, which was defended by a Portuguese garrison, under general Madeira. Lord Cochrane, the Brazilian admiral, blockaded the harbor from March 26, 1823. Madeira, compelled to surrender by famine, sailed, during the negotiation, in the night of July 2, to Europe, and the Brazilian troops entered the place. At home, don Pedro had two parties to contend withthe ancient Portuguese, which was the weaker, and the republican, the stronger. The latter was especially powerful in Pernambuco. The brothers Andrade sought to gain both parties by the proposal of a free constitution, formed after the model of the English ; but the obstacles of all kinds, and the violent opposition with which their administration was harassed, compelled them to resort to arbitrary measures and arrests. They treated the malcontents as Carbonari, and thereby excited the suspicion, that the emperor aspired to absolute authority. They finally convoked the cortes of B., the session of which was opened by the emperor, May 3, 1823. Of the 20 members, who constituted the opposition, out of the 60 (instead of 160) present, Aranjo Lima was the most eloquent. The ministers succeeded in causing secret societies to be prohibited, by which means they gained a pretence for imprisoning many, whose sentiments were republican. This augmented the public dissatisfaction, and, when the emperor, having been severely injured by a fall from a horse, did not appear in public for a month, the enemies of the ministers became more bold in their outcries, and even sent threatening representations to the emperor. The imprisoned were acquitted by the supreme court of justice^ and the emperor found himself compelled to dismiss the two Andrade, July 16, load, uon joaq. ae uarneiro Campos (formerly professor of mathematics at the college of Lisbon) received the department of foreign affairs, and don Man. Jacint. Figueroa da Gama that of the financesboth adherents to the political principles of 1791.Meanwhile, the royal power had been restored in Lisbon in May, 1823 ; but the Brazilians demanded the more loudly a free constitution and a separation from Portugal. The emperor, therefore, refused to receive the envoy of the king his father, the count de Rio Mayor, Sept. 6, 1823, because he could not give assurance of the acknowledgment of the independence of B. At the same time, the congress authorized a loan of £2,500,000 in London, which has subsequently been increased about £700,000. (75 per cent, only was paid in specie, at 6 per cent. interest!) The constitution of Aug. 10, 1823, which the national assembly had accepted with some alterations, was final'y laid before the emperor, but, in consequence of a revolution which suddenly ensued, not accepted, because it resembled the Spanish and Portuguese constitutions, and restricted too much the authority of the sovereign. Since the fall of the Andrade, the republican party had gained strength, and attacked, in their journals, with particular violence, the Portuguese in the Brazilian service, and demanded their expulsion. Two officers, in retaliation, did s^me injury, Nov. 8, to an apothecary at Rio, who laid his complaints before the congress. The two exministers Andrade, and their third brother, don Antonio Carlos, likewise a deputy, demanded that congress should investigate the matter ; others desired that it should be referred to the courts of justice. This gave rise to a violent tumult on the 10th ; the people took part in it; the dismissal of the ministers, and the departure of all the Portuguese, were loudly required. The ministers gave in their resignation, and the emperor collected the troops at his palace San Cbristovao, four leagues from the city. The congress hereupon declared itself permanent. Nov. 12, it was informed, by a message from the emperor, that all the officers regarded themselves as injured by two journals, of one of which the three Andrade were editors, and patrons of the other; and they were accused, in general, of being at the head of a rebellious party. The minister of the interior declared, at the same time, that the troops insisted on the removal of the two An araae irom me assemoiy. immediately after, the troops entered the citj^, surrounded the hall of the convention, and an officer delivered an imperial decree, ordering the dissolution of the assembly. The president recorded it on the journals, declared the session terminated, and the deputies separated, Nov. 12, 1823. But while departing, and subsequently, many were arrested; among them the three Andrade, who were eventually transported. In a decree of the same day, the emperor termed the assembly perjured, but, on the following day, limited this expression to the faction of the Andrade. The provinces, also, were the theatre of many turbulent scenes. In Pernambuco, the violent dissolution of the congress gave rise to much dissatisfaction, and it was difficult to appease the hatred of the Brazilians against the Portuguese. A second national assembly was finally convened at the end of Nov., 1823, and the emperor caused a constitution, drawn up by his council of state, to be laid before the cabildo (the municipality) of the capital, Dec. 11, 1823, which collected the votes of the citizens respecting it in writing. As all assented to this constitution, the oath was administered Jan. 9, 1824. The same course was pursued in the provinces: but here many citizens voted against the constitution ; among others, the president, Man. de Carvalho Paes d'Andrade of Pernambuco. March 25, 1824, the oath to observe the constitution was also taken by the emperor and empress. In its fundamental principles, this constitution coincided with those previously projected. The four branches of civil authoritythe legislative, the mediative, the executive and the judicial are made to rest on a transfer of power by the people. The government is monarchical, hereditary, constitutional and representative. The representation of the Brazilian nation consists of the emperor and the general assembly, a body composed of two chambersthat of the deputies, chosen for four years, and that of the senators, chosen by the emperor from the electionlists. With the former rests the power of originating bills for the imposition of taxes and the levying of soldiers, as well as of proposing a change of dynasty. The latter retain their dignity for life. The sessions of these chambers are public. The majority of votes decides. The senate has jurisdiction of the misdemeanors of the members of the royal family, of the ministers, deputies and council of state. The two chambers pos sess, in general, great privileges. The emperor has the executive and mediatorial authorities; but his veto is not absolute. He cannot refuse his sanction to a bill equally approved by two legislative assemblies. The press is free, but libels are punished by law. All immunities, privileged corporations, &c. are abolished. The Roman Catholic is the established religion: to other denominations domestic worship is allowed, but without the power of having churches, &c. Notwithstanding this liberal constitution, the republican party gained the supremacy in Pernambuco. The president, Man. de Carvalho Paes d'Andrade, recalled by the emperor, attempted to unite the northern provinces into one republic, called the Union of the Equator. But, as soon as the emperor had no longer cause to fear an attack from Portugal, his forces invaded Pernambuco, in August, by land and sea, under the command of lord Cochrane and general Lima. Carvalho and Barros, with a great portion of the inhabitants, made an obstinate resistance; but, on the 17th of Sept., 1824, the city was taken by assault. Carvalho had fled to an English ship of war; the others into the interior of the country.In the following year, the emperor sent general Brandt and the chev. de Carneiro to London, to negotiate there, with the Portuguese minister, the marquis de Villareal, respecting the independence of B. Similar negotiations afterwards took place in Lisbon, through the British envoy extraordinary, sir Charles Stuart, who finally concluded, at Rio Janeiro, with the Brazilian rhinister of foreign affairs, Luis Jose de Carvalho e Mello, a treaty between B. and Portugal, Aug. 29, 1825, on the following terms :1. B. should be recognised as an independent empire, separate from Portugal and Algarvia. 2. The king of Portugal was to resign the sovereignty of B. in favor of his son and his legitimate posterity. 3. The king of Portugal should retain the title of emperor of B. for his own person merely. 4. The emperor don Pedro should promise to receive from no Portuguese colony proposals for a union with B. 5. The trade between the two nations should be restored, and all property confiscated should be returned, or compensation made for it. The king of Portugal ratified this treaty Nov. 15, 1825. The emperor of B. has since sent ambassadors to the courts of Lisbon, London, Paris and Vienna. Sir Charles Stuart, soon after, concluded at Rio, Oct. 18, 1825, a treatyof amity and commerce, and another treaty, respecting the abolition of the slavetrade, delayed for four additional years, between B. and Great Britain. But neither was ratified by the king of Great Britain, because, among other things, they contained stipulations for the mutual surrender of political criminals (or those charged with high treason) and refugees. About this time, the government of the United Provinces of the Plata urged the restoration of the Banda Oriental, which B. had held in possession since 1816. The emperor, therefore, declared war against Buenos Ayres, Dec. 10, 1825, and. caused the mouth of the La Plata to be blockaded by his vessels of war. But the people of the Cisplatino, with the natives of Monte Video, had already taken up arms, for the sake of a union with the United Provinces of the Plata. The insurgents took Maldonado. General Lecor (viscount de Laguna), however, maintained himself in Monte Video. On the other hand, the republic of the Plata formally received the Banda Oriental into its confederacy, and, at the close of the year 1825, B. possessed but two points in the Banda OrientalMonte Video and the colony del San Sagramento. A question of much importance now arose, whether the emperor don Pedro should succeed his father, king John VI, in the kingdom of Portugal. The king died March 10, 1826, having appointed his daughter, the infanta Isabella Maria, provisional regent. According to the constitution of B., don Pedro could not leave the country without the consent of the general assembly. He therefore entered upon the government of Portugal, and gave this kingdom a representative constitution, but renounced the crown of Portugal in his own person by the act of abdication of May 2, 1826, and resigned his right to his daughter donna Maria da Gloria, princess of Beira, born in 1819, who was to marry her uncle don Miguel, born in 1802; meanwhile, the emperor confirmed the present regent of Portugal. (For a further account of Maria, Miguel, and the state of Portugal, see Portugal.) Soon after, May 8, he opened the second constitutional assembly of B. at Rio. He had previously, April 16, 1826, founded the new Brazilian order of Pedro I. The war with Buenos Ayres was continued in the Banda Oriental with little vigor, and with little prospect of advantage to either party, but with a ruinous charge upon the finances of both. A negotiation for peace was at length opened, under the mediation of Great Britain, which terminated in the execution of a treaty, Aug. 27, 1828. In this treaty, the emperor of Brazil and the government of the United Provinces unite in declaring the Cisplatino, or the province of Monte Video, which had been the chief object of controversy, a free and independent state, under such form of government as it might deem most suitable to its interests, wants and resources. It was stipulated, that, for the purpose of forming this government, the existing government of the Banda Oriental should, immediately on the ratification of the treaty, convoke the representatives of the part of the province subject to it, and the government of Monte Video its citizens, to make choice of a proportional number of delegates, and that these representatives and delegates should constitute a provisional government, whose duty it should be to form a poJitical constitution for the new state. After the meeting of this provisional government, the functions of the previously existing governments were to cease. The independence of the province of Monte Video was guarantied by the contracting parties. This treaty was duly ratified, the blockade of the La Plata was immediately raised, and the troops of the two belligerents were withdrawn from the contested territory.By an act of the legislature, passed in 1827, the celibacy of the clergy has been abolished in B. (For further information, see Banda Oriental.) The national debt of B. is considerable, including the English loan of £3,200,000. The principal ecclesiastical dignitaries are an archbishop, who resides at Bahia, and 16 bishops, of the Roman Catholic, the established religion. In all the large towns, the government supports elementary and high schools. In the former, the system of mutual instruction is introduced. In Bahia and Rio Janeiro, there are institutions for teaching surgery, medicine, engineering and law, and for imparting commercial information. Rio has an academy for the instruction of officers intended for the naval service; also an observatory. This city and Bahia, also, contain academies for the promotion of the fine arts, public libraries, &c. In 1826,300 young Brazilians were pursuing their studies in France. The army consisted, in 1824, of 30,000 regular troops and 50,000 militia, besides a regiment of free Negroes. The navy, in 1826, consisted of 96 ships, including 1 ship of the fine and 4 frigates. The revenue of B. has been lately estimated, by the minister of finances, at about $16,290,000. Of this sum, about $7,200,000 are all which come into the hands of the general government for the supply of the general expenses. The remainder is consumed in the internal administration of the provinces in which it is collected. The whole estimate, however, is vague, and not much to be depended on. Notwithstanding the many natural resources of B., it must long remain weak, in a political view; for its inconsiderable population is too unequal in its advantages and too divided in its views. 1,800,000 are Negro slaves, ignorant and barbarous ; the Indians are of no advantage to the industry of the country. They live, for the most part, retired in the wilderness. The Mulattoes seem to combine in themselves the vices of the savage and the European. Both sexes give themselves up, without shame, to the impulses of their passions, anc? their cruelty to their slaves is often horrible. The Europeans and the Creoles form, to some extent, the aristocracy of the country. Most of them are planters or miners, or overseers in the colonies, and, in this way, are scattered far over the country, with little communication with each other, without knowledge and education. The most cultivated persons are found in the maritime cities. But, even in Rio, the merchants, according to Mathison, are men of very little information. They take no interest in any thing but what immediately concerns their business. The clergy Mathison found so dissolute, that he was ashamed to give a description of their morals. Of men of higher character, capable of administering public offices, there are but few, and they are chiefly Portuguese. (See the Corogrqfta Brazilica of Manoei Ayres de Caza], Rio Janeiro, 1817, 2 vols. 4to.; Southey's History of Brazil, London, 1818, 2 vols. 4to.)