BERLIN

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BERLIN; the capital of the Prussian dominions; principal residence of the king, and seat of the highest councils of the kingdom; situated in the province of Brandenburg, on the Spree, 127 feet above the level of the sea; Ion. 13° 22' E.; lat. 52° 31' N.; one of the largest and handsomest cities of Europe. It is about 12 miles in circumference, and consists of 5 townsBerlin Proper, Koln, or Cologne, on the Spree, Friedrichswerder, Neu or Dorotheenstadt and Friedrichsstadt; and 5 suburbsLouisenstadt, the King's suburb, those of Spandau and Stralau, and, outside of the walls, Oranienburg suburb. B. has 22 squares and marketplaces, 15 gates, 27 parish churches, 37 bridges, &c. In the year 1817, there were 7133 houses, including the churches, the other public buildings (174), the manufactories (61), the stables and barns (483). At the close of the year 1825, B. contained (the military included) 220,000 inhabitants, among whom were about 3700 Jews, 4000 Catholics, and more than 10,000 Calvinists,1. Berlin Proper', consisting of 39 streets, was built, in 1163, by margrave Albert the Bear. It received its name from the wildness of the country, and was settled by emigrants from Holland It contains the royal postoffice. the townhouse, the general military acad emy, the academy for cadets, the royal school of the gray convent, that of Joachimsthal, the Lutheran parish church of St. Nicholas (the oldest church in B.), the Frederic orphan asylum (established in 1818, for 1009 orphans), with a church, and a royal institution for vaccination (where, since 1802, 25,332 children, beside adults, have been vaccinated gratuitously), the synagogue of the Jews, the new market, and many other public buildings. The suburbs of B., taking the name in its most limited sense, are, the King's suburb (K6-nigsvorstadt), containing the new theatre, where the famous Mile. Sontag performed before she went to Paris; the suburb ot Spandau, where are the royal palace Monbijou, the veterinary college, the great hospital La Charite, with which a clinical institution is connected (numbering, in 1816, 5144 patients, among whom were 419 with mental disorders), the new royal mint, &c. and, finally, Stralau. Outside of the walls, the Rosenthalsuburb, or Neuvoigtland, is situated. Before the Oranienburg gate are the iron foundery, where castiron ware, of every description, is made; the royal hospital of invalids, which receives upwards of 1000 inmates, officers, soldiers, women and children.2. Koln, or Cologne, on the Spree, which received this name when it was built from the Kollnen (piles), on which the Vandals (Wenden), driven out by Albert the Bear, had built their huts in the midst of bogs and morasses, contains 25 streets, enclosed by two branches of the Spree; a bridge 100 feet long, of stone, resting upon 5 arches, and adorned with a colossal equestrian statue of the great elector Frederic William, in bronze, planned by Schliiter, and cast by Jacobi; the royal palace, 460 feet in length, 276 in breadth, and 101^ in height, containing the galleryof paintings, the cabinet of artificial and natural curiosities, the collection of medals, &c; the museum of art, a most magnificent building, newly erected by Schinkel; the royal riding academy. A part of Koln is called NeuKoln, and consists of 4 streets, built along the Spree.o3. F)*iedrichsv)erder, including 19 streets, was founded by the elector Frederic William the Great. Here are situated the palace, inhabited by the present king, originally intended for the crownprince ; the splendid arsenal, in the yard of which the 365 famous heads of dying warriors, in relief, by Schlliter, serve. as keystones in the arches of the windows; the royal founclery; the new guardhouse statues of Scharnhorst and Biilow, by Rauch, and three pieces of ordnance of the largest caliber, two of which were taken from the French; opposite to it stands the colossal statue of Blucher, in bronze, a work of Rauch.4. Neu or Dorotheenstadt, likewise built by the elector Frederic William the Great, and named after his second wife, has but 5 regular streets, among which is the stately street " beneath the limes," 2088 feet in length, and 170 in breadth, affording the most beautiful walk in the city, and a part of Fredericstreet, which is 4250 paces in length. The principal buildings in this quarter are, the university edifice; the Catholic church, built on the plan of the Pantheon in Rome; the fine operahouse; the royal library, the style of which is bad; the academy building, destined for a museum, with an observatory whose platform rises 84 feet from the pavement of the street; the great singingacademy, erected by Schinkel, and devoted only to church music ; the Parisplace, &c. The Brandenburg gate, which is 195 feet in width, was built, in 1789, by Langhans, in imitation of the Propylseum at Athens, but on a much larger scale. Above it is the famous Victoria in a quadriga, which was carried away by the French, in 1807, and, in 1814, brought back from Paris by the Prussians: before it lies the park, 880 acres in extent, containing, besides various walks, the royal palace Bellevue, and several countryseats, belonging to wealthy individuals.5. Friedrichsstadt, founded, in 1688, by the elector Frederic III (king Frederic I), surpasses the four other divisions of the city in extent, and consists of 23 wide streets, among which the abovementioned Fredericstreet is distinguished. Worthy of notice are, the Gendarmes market; also Williamplace, a quadrangle 190 paces in length and 90 in breadth, containing the marble statues of the generals Schwerin, Winterfeld, Seydlitz, Keith and Ziethen, who, in the grotesque taste of the last century, are represented in Roman costume and periwigs ; the Leipsicplace ; the place of BelleAlliance ; the Bohemian church; the Trinity church; the French and the new church, with two famous steeples; the royal porcelain manufactory; the academy of Frederic William, with the Realschule (which belongs to the class of high schools, and contained, in the year 1816,650 scholars); the Collegien or councilhouse, where the legislative committee, the chief court of justice, also the Kammergericht^ond. council forof the Brandenburg fiefs are kept; the bank; the house of the society for foreign commerce; the theatre, which, in 1817, was consumed by fire, and was afterwards rebuilt under the direction of Schinkel; several handsome buildings belonging to private persons, &c.Louisenstadt, for the greater part, consists of fields and gardens. Before the Cottbus gate, upon a rising ground covered with wood, called Hasenhaide, was the first spot devoted to the new gymnastic exercises in Germany, invented by doctor Jahn. On the top of the mountain of the cross, formerly Ternpelhof mountain, before the Halle gate, is a monument of iron, erected, in 1820, in commemoration of the wars against France.B. contains upwards of 100 public and 50 private elementary schools: of burgher or intermediate schools, 10 public, 60 private, and 13 special schools (schools in which youth are educated for particular employments): 5 gymnasia or classical schools, 7 higher special schools or colleges, and the university: also several academies and literary societies, as the royal academy of science (see Academy); the academy of fine arts, mechanical sciences and architecture, with the schools of art appertaining to this academy; the society for natural history and natural philosophy ; the medicochirurgical, the pharmaceutic, the philomathic, the physicomedical societies; the society for cultivating the German language ; the association of artists. There are also, in this city, a museum of antiquities, established in 1820; the royal medicochirurgical academy, for the military; two royal medicochirurgical seminaries, intended to educate surgeons for the army; the royal veterinary school; two seminaries for the education of town and country schoolmasters; the seminary for missionaries, destined to convert the heathens in the western parts of Africa; several institutions for the deaf and dumb and the blind; a free school for Jewish children; an academy for foresters (an institution in which the knowledge relating to the cultivation of woods and forests "s acquired); a singing academy; a military swimmingschool ; a Bible society; a society for the advancement of Christianity among the Jews; an association for the cultivation of gardens; an institution for preparing artificial mineral waters, &c. There are many charitable institutions in B., the poor, who cannot subsist without help, being about 12,000. Among them, the female charitable association, under 3$ directresses, provided, December, 1818, for 1*200 poor persons, dispersed in 180 families. The most benevolent institution is that established, in 1794, by Kranz, counsellor of war, for relieving impoverished citizens, and which has since numbered some of its former beneficiaries among its members. B. has a considerable commerce and some important manufactories ; a royal bank; a royal society for foreign commerce ; a woolmarket; upwards of 300 machines for spinning wool and cotton, with 29,000 spindles, 4834 looms for weaving cloths, silk, woollen, cotton and linen, carpets, &c; numerous manufactories of silk, woollen or cotton ribands, 326 lacemakers, 44 manufactories for coloring and printing stuffs, 66 dyehouses, 5 sugar refineries, 4 manufactories of ornamental tinware, porcelain and stoneware factories, the royal bronze manufactories, important manufactories of gold and silver ware, of fine cabinet work, of petinet, straw hats, artificial flowers and feathers; about 25 printing houses, 8 powder mills, &c.; also Mr. Jacobi's valuable collection of works of art. The pavement of B. is extremely bad; the illumination of the streets imperfect. Though some parts of this city are beautiful, yet, on the other hand, its flat and sandy environs are extremely unpleasant. The university of B. was founded in 1809, when Prussia was groaning beneath the heavy yoke of the French. It proceeded from the noble efforts of those men who, at that time, conducted the public concerns of the kingdom (Stein was one of the most distinguished among them), and were convinced that the only effectual preparation for a future deliverance fiom the French was a moral regeneration of the people; at the same time thinking all that diffuses knowledge and intellectual light an excellent means of producing this moral changean idea which was realized by the result. Although the university of B. is so young an establishment, yet it ranks among the first in the world, and is, in one branch of sciencein philologythe very first. By means of this and many other scientific institutions, a literary spirit has been awakened among the citizens, by which they are very advantageously distinguished from the inhabitants of other cities; but, on the other hand, the society of B. has neither the refined manners of a royal residence, nor the easy manners of many other cities. To the university belong the botanical garden without the city, near Schonberg, the anatomical theatre, the anatomical and zoological museum, the theological and philological seminary, the cabinet of minerals, the clinical institution, the lyingin hospital, &c. In the year 1826, there were 1640 students in the university of B., among whom were 400 foreigners. More than 90 professors are employed in the university. In the year 1828, the annual meeting of German naturalists, for the promotion of natural science, was held at B., under the direction of Alexander von Humboldt. It furnished a splendid array of talent, and many discourses of great interest were delivered.