BARCELONA

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BARCELONA, one of the largest cities of Spain, the capital of the province of Catalonia, is handsomely built, in the shape of a halfmoon, on the coast of the Mediterranean, in Ion. 2° 10" E., and 41° 21' 44" N. lat. It was, even in the middle ages, one of the principal commercial places on this sea; is well fortified, and has, on the east side, a strong citadel, built in 1715, having a secret connexion with the fort San Carlos, near the sea. On the west side of the city lies the hill of Montjouy, with a fort, which protects the harbor. B. is divided into the upper and lower town, and contains, including the adjoining Barcelonetta, 140,000 inhabitants. It has 150 cotton and many silk manufactories. Linen and laces, articles of iron and copper, particularly excellent guns, pistols and swords for the Spanish army, formerly sent, also, to Naples and the American colonies, are manufactured in great quantities. The harbor is spacious, but of difficult access, and has not sufficient depth for menofwar. It is protected by a large mole, at the end of which are a lighthouse and a bulwark. The exports consist, besides the abovementioned articles, of wine and brandy; the imports, of French and Italian manufactures, grain, rice, timber from the Baltic, yellow wax from Barbary, Swedish iron, steel from Stiria, hemp from Riga and Petersburg, linen, copper and iron wire from Germany. An important article of import is stockfish, brought by the English from Newfoundland. The amount of the imports and exports, which employ nearly 1500 ships (among them 120 belonging to B.), is computed to be more than 7,000,000 dollars. The city contains 82 churches, a university, several public libraries, a public collection of natural curiosities, a school for engineers and artillery, an academy of belleslettres, a foundling hospital, a general hospital, large enough to contain 3000 sick persons, a large arsenal, a cannon foundery, &c. The tribunal of the inquisition is suppressed.B. was, until the 12th century, governed by its own counts; but, afterwards, by the marriage of Raymond V with the daughter of Ramiro II, king of Arragon, it was united with that kingdom. In 1640, it withdrew, with all Cat alonia, from the Spanish government, and submitted to the French crown ; in 1652, submitted again to the Spanish government : in 1697, it was taken by the French, but restored to Spain at. the peace of Ryswick. In the war of the Spanish succession, B. took the part of the archduke Charles; but, in 1714, it was besieged by the troops of Philip V, under the command of the duke of Berwick, and taken after an obstinate resistance. The strong citadel on the east side of the city was then erected, to overawe the inhabitants. Feb. 16, 1809, B. was taken, by surprise, by the French troops under general Duhesme, and remained in the power of the French, until, in 1814, all their troops were recalled from Catalonia to defend their own countiy. In 1821, B. was desolated by the yellow fever.