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BARBARY STATES. The states of Bar baiy lie on the northern coast of Africa, westerly from Egypt, as far as the Atlantic ocean. They are, Tripoli (including Barca), Tunis, Algiers, Fez and Morocco They are, with the exception of some little republics in Barca, all seats of the military despotism of the Turks and Moors. This tract of land, of 741,650 square miles, is intersected by the Atlas mountains, whose highest summits are constantly covered with snow. The loftiest among them, not far from the city of Morocco, is 12,000 feet high. On the coast, a mild, healthy, springlike breeze prevails the whole year, except in July and August, when the suffocating south wind blows. The plague is never generated here, but is brought from Constantinople.The ground is fruitful in those places where it is watered by rivers running from the Atlas mountains into the Mediterranean. From July till October, when all other plants are scorched up by the sun, the oleander still survives to enliven the landscape. In winter, the ground is watered by frequent and violent showers. In January, the meadows aie already adorned with verdure. In April and May, the whole country is covered with flowers. The moisture and warmth impart to the productions of the soil an uncommon vigor and an exuberant growth. Barley is the most important production. Wheat, maize, millet, rice, and a kind of pulse (in Spanish, garbanpos), which are eaten roasted, in large quantities, are generally cultivated. The Indian figtree, which takes root easily, forms impenetrable hedges for gardens and vineyards. The vine stretches itself, in beautiful windings, from one tree to another. Its trunk is often as large as that of a commonsized tree. Everywhere are seen wellcultivated olivegardens. The pomegranates are three times as large as in Italy. Excellent oranges ripen in great quantities. Melons, cucumbers, cabbages, lettuce, abound. The artichoke grows wild. The henna is raised in the gardens. The acorns of the quercus ballota, with a high trunk, an article of food of the inhabitants, taste like wild chestnuts. The tall, tapering cypress, the cedar, the almondtree, the white mulberrytree, the indigofera glauca (which is important for dyeing), the cineraria of the meadows (which is efficacious against the stone), the fragrant cistus, the splendid cactus, grow every where. The hills are covered with thyme and rosemary, which purify the air, and serve for firewood. In all directions are seen bushes of white roses, from which is extracted the purest essence. The sugarcane flourishes excellently. An inferior variety of this, called soliman, reaches a considerable height, and is more juicy than any other in the world. The lotus and the palmtree are of the greatest advantage to the inhabitants. The fanpalm grows on the whole coast; the datepalm, in the parts which lie nearerto the desert of Sahara. There are, al&ig the coast, woods of the corktree. Gum is obtained from the acaciatree.oAmong the useful animals, the camel holds the highest place. Greater care might be bestowed on the breeding of horses and buffaloes. Sheep with fat tails are common. Wild boars and many other species of game are abundant. In the interior of the country are apes, jackals, hyenas lions, panthers, ounces, and the gentle gazelles. Ostriches live in the desert. Birds are numerous, as are, also, locusts, gnats, flies, bugs, toads and serpents, the latter from 9 to 12 feet long; river and seafish and turtles in abundance. The bees deposit excellent honey in the rocks and trees. The art of mining is neglected ; but there is much iron, copper, lead, tin, sulphur, many mineralsprings, much gypsum, limestone, good clays, &c, together with salt from springs and the sea, in abundance.This extensive and beautiful country, separated from Europe only by a sea of no great width, has often been the centre of an advanced civilization. It was distinguished for prosperity, population and industry, under the Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals and Arabians. Its commercial advantages are very great. Its intercourse with the coasts of Europe is far more easy and quick than the intercourse of those coasts with their own capital cities, and the transportation of goods is less expensive from Marseilles and Genoa to Tunis and Algiers than to Paris, or even to Turin and Milan. Cato showed to the Roman senate fresh figs, which were gathered under the walls of Carthage; yet this fruit, except in its dried state, is not edible after three days from the time of gathering. The whole country can support 60 millions of inhabitants, and now hardly contains 10 millions and a half. Next to Egypt, it was the richest and most productive Roman province, and one of the granaries of the mistress of the world. The Roman writers called it the soul of the republic, the jewel of the empire, speciositas totius terras florentis, and the wealthy citizens considered the possession of palaces and countryhouses on this beautiful coast as the highest happiness. The little Arabian courts, too, of Fez, Tetuan, Tremecen, Garbo, Constantino, sedulously encouraged the arts and agriculture. Amalfi, Naples, Messina, Pisa, Genoa and Florence, enriched themselves by their commercial intercourse with this fine country, and the Venetian ships visited all the cities of the African coast. Three centuries ago, aq end was put to all this prosperity. The land became the abode of crime and misery, the prey of 13-14000 adventurers, collected together from another part of the world, and detested by the native inhabitants. The inhabitants of the country are divided into Cabyles, Moors and Arabs, Negroes, Jews and Turks. First, the original inhabitants, called, also, Barabra or Berbers (hence Barbary), dwell in the mountains in small villages. The Guanches, in the Canaries, were also Berbers. These are wild, athletic, wellformed men, of great muscular strength, who bear with ease hunger, and hardships of all kinds. All the branches of ¬£his race are distinguished by thin beards. They are, for the most part, robbers, inhuman and faithless; yet they practise hospitality, and travellers are secure under their protection. Jealous of their liberty, they are subject to their sovereign only in name, and usually cany on war with the troops employed in collecting the taxes. They prepare their firearms themselves, and are good marksmen. The shepherds, on the high mountains, dwell in caves, like the ancient Troglodytes. The SchilluhBerbers, in Morocco, are the most implacable and vindictive. The most numerous people of Northern Africa are the Arabs. Those who dwell in cities are particularly called Moors; those who wander over the country, and live in tents, are called Bedouins. The last are descended from the Saracens, the first conquerors of the country. They are large, muscular, with spirited, handsome countenances, large, black, piercing eyes, noses somewhat aquiline, regular teeth, white as ivory, a full, strong beard, and black hair. The complexion of the people, in the northern parts, is light brown, and, toward the south, becomes darker, till at last it is entirely black, but without the Negro physiognomy, which first shows itself in Soudan. The Arab natives are, for the most part, a wandering race, dwelling in tents, in bodies of from 10 or 12 to 100 families, in the patriarchal manner, every family under a sheik, who explains the Koran, administers justice, and adjusts quarrels. They carry on a constant war, in the most savage manner, either with the Berbers, or with the collectors of tribute, sent by their sovereign. Their business is war; their income, plunder. When they are not engaged in war with their neighho?'s, they enter, as auxiliaries, the service of the deys. They universally hate the Christians, yet they are less dissembling and deceitful than the Moors and Berbers. The right of hospitality is of avail only within their little camps. The Moors are a mixture of all the nations which have settled in Northern Africa, but, in their principal characteristics, are Arabs. They call themselves Moslems (that is, believers), or Medains (that is, inhabitants of cities). As zealous professors of Mohammed's doctrine, they despise and hate Christians and Jews. They are jealous, suspicious, unsociable, dissembling, cruel, incapable of love and friendship ; moreover, so idle and inactive, that they sit whole days with their legs crossed under them, leaning against the wall, and, without uttering a word, gaze at the passers by. There is no longer any trace of the intellectual cultivation which they had attained in the middle ages, under a better government, in Spain. They are in the highest degree superstitious, and, in their eyes, it is a crime merely to possess a printed book. The Moor never laughs: serious, and, to all appearance, absorbed in thought, he gives no sign of a desire of knowledge, or of intellectual action. His greatest pleasure is, to go into the bath, to drink coffee, and to hear stories. The usual food of this people is cuscosoo, a kind of maccaroni. The inhabitants of Morocco drink also much tea. The belief prevails universally among the Moors, that, at some future time, on a festival day, at the hour of prayer, they will be attacked and subdued by a people clothed in red. In their blind fatalism, they bear with indifference every change of condition, and die quietly under the severest pain, if they can only lie with their faces turned towards Mecca.Free Negroes have settled among the Moors, and, in Morocco, even fill the offices of state, and serve in the army. Jews are scattered over the wThole of Barbary. They cany on the foreign trade. They are descended from the first colony of Israelites from Phoenicia, increased by the hundreds of thousands who were banished from Spain and Portugal. Notwithstanding the contempt in which they live, separated, in a narrow district, from the rest of the inhabitants of the cities, insulted by the common people, and Dppressed by the rich, yet all business is done by them. The ignorant Moorish rulers farm out to Jews their revenues, and choose from among them their men of business, taxgatherers, secretaries, interpreters, &c. They coin the money, and manufacture ornaments of all kinds. Heavy taxes are imposed on them, ac cording to their age. Seldom is a murder punished which a Moor commits upon a Jew. The Jews are not allowed to wear any thing but black, a color hated by the Moors. They, therefore, adorn themselves so much the more in their houses. The ruling class is the Turks. Since Turkish and other pirates settled here, 300 years ago, through the perfidy of the first Home or Aruch Barbarossa (see Barbarossa), the arts, sciences, agriculture and commerce, which formerly distinguished the Arabian states, here, as in Grenada, have perished. The political privileges of the Turks, and their riches, gained by piracy and traffic in slaves, have enabled them to tyrannise over the other inhabitants. The continual wars which the knights of Malta of the order of St. John carried on with the unbelievers, gave these military states of Northern Africa the occasion for their piratical policy. The knights destroyed the Moorish commerce. Selim and Soliman, therefore, called upon their subjects to commit robberies on the Christians. Excellent sailors were soon formed under the flag of the crescent. Among them, the two brothers Home and Hayradin (or Khair Ecldin, who died in 1546), both surnamed Barbarossa, distinguished themselves. They founded, about 1518, the piratical republic of Algiers, where religious fanaticism has given to piracy a sacred character. As the Moorish commerce declined whilst that of the Christians increased, the Maltese, consequently, gained little, the Algerines, on the contrary, much booty, and Tunis, Tripoli and Morocco were induced to follow the example: but Algiers constantly distinguished itself above the rest of the Barbaiy states by courage and crime. Here, as in Malta, the sovereignty was the exclusive possession of foreign warriors. The reigning soldiery was supported by voluntary enlistments in all countries of the same belief, excepting that in which it governed. This militia reserved to itself the right of choosing their chief, and the dey was the first among his equals, for the soldiers a general, and for the native races an unlimited ruler. The Algerine government also prohibited the marriage of the soldiers, and jealously excluded their children from all participation in the government, the Turks reserving the important places for themselves. For this reason, the government sends ships eveiy other year to the Levant, to obtain new enlistments. They take recruits even among the criminalsin Constantinople. Here despised, in Algiers they immediately become effendis (Turkish lawyers), with all the haughti ness of upstarts and adventurers. There are not more than 12-13000 of them, and yet they rule over several millions. History of the Barbary States. Since the subjection of Northern Africa by Omar (A.D.647) and other generals of the Arabian caliphs, several small states have arisen on the coast. Zeiri, a distinguished Arab, built Algiers (Aschir) in 944, and extend ed the dominion of his countrymen. One of the Fatimite caliphs conferred on the family of this able man (who died in 970) hereditary power. It governed, under the name of the Zeirites, till 1148, when Roger, king of Sicily, took from Hassan Ben Ali, the last of this dynasty, Tripoli and a great portion of his territory. The Moravides, the rulers of Morocco, made themselves masters of the rest. The dy nasty of the Moravides governed the whole coast till 1269, in which year the Negro princes Abouhafs founded a kingdom at Tunis. St. Louis (q. v.) died of the plague, at the siege of the city of this name, in 1270. After this, the Beni Zian became masters of the greatest part of the Algerine state, but could not prevent the most important cities (Oran, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli) from raising themselves to independent sovereignties, which, by the expulsion of the Moors and Jews from Spain, in and after 1492, became very populous. About 1494, they began to revenge themselves for their expulsion from Spain by piracy. Ferdinand the Catholic, therefore, fitted out a powerful expedition against them. He conquered, in 1506, Oran and other cities, made the rulers of Tunis and Tremecen tributary to him; in 1509, took Tripoli, subdued Algiers, and built, on an island before the harbor of the city, a castle, which he provided with a strong garrison, and thereby commanded the commerce of the place. But, after Ferdinand's death, the Algerines called to their assistance a Turkish pirate, the abovenamed Home or Aruch Barbarossa, who, with his brother, Khayr Eddin or Hayradin, appeared with a squadron before Algiers. He was received with joy by the inhabitants; but, soon after his arrival, he caused the emir Selim Eutemi (who till this time had defended Algiers) to be strangled, and himself to be proclaimed king, in 1518, by the Turks, who now exercised such intolerable tyranny, murdering and plundering at pleasure, that the natives were even compelled to call upon the Spaniards for as sfstance ; but a storm destroyed the Spanish fleet. Home Barbarossa afterwards defeated the Arabs, and conquered Tunis and Trernecen. But he was vanquished before Oran by the Spanish governor, the marquis de Gomarez, and, with 1500 Turks, remained dead upon the field. His brother and successor, Hayradin, seeing no possibility of being able to maintain himself against the Christians and the discontented Algerines, placed the kingdom, in 1519, under the protection of the sultan Soilman, who appointed him pacha, and supplied him with 10,000 janizaries. With these troops he expelled the Spaniards from the fortified island, which, in 1529, he connected with the main land by a mole, so as to render Algiers an excellent harbor. He took Tunis by stratagem, but was obliged, in 1535, to abandon it to Charles V, who again placed upon the throne the banished king, set at liberty 20,000 Christian slaves, and kept possession of the citadel of Goletta. Against Hassan (a renegade from Sardinia), Hayradin's successor in the office of pacha, Charles V, contrary to the advice of the experienced Doria, undertook the siege of Algiers, with a fleet of 200 sail and 30,000 men, in the latter part of 1541. The Spaniards wished to settle here permanently; and merchants, mechanics, and women, even ladies of the court, had embarked on board the fleet. But a terrinle storm, accompanied with earthquakes and violent rains, destroyed the greater part of the ships and the camp, Oct. 28. Charles was obliged to abandon his cannon and baggage, and a great part of his scattered forces. He lost, by the storm, 15 ships of war, 140 transports and 8000 men. CidUtica, say the Moors, a pious Maraboot, beat the sea so long with his stick, that it lost patience, and destroyed the ships of the unbelievers. A monument was erected to the holy man after his death; and, even now, the people believe that it is only necessary to strike the sea with his bones, in order to raise a storm which will repel a Christian fleet. This success encouraged the barbarians. The pacha of Egypt, in 1544, conquered Trernecen ; in 1555, Bugia ; and, in 1569, Tunis, which, however, regained its independence in 1628, in 1694 became tributary, and, in 1754, was conquered a second time. Since then, it has always remained more or less dependent upon Algiers. The Spaniards, in 1703, renewed, without success, their attacks upon Algiers: they also lost Oran, in 1708. Equally unsuccessful were the attacks of the English, VOL. i. 48 the Dutch and the French. In 1662, the English, for the first time, made a treaty with Algiers, and, in 1816, in connexion with the Dutch, finally humbled the pride of this piratical state. (See Slavetrade and Slavery of the Whites). But the insufficiency of the means employed for the restraint of the fanatics, the jealousy of the European states, and other causes, contributed to render the humiliation of the Algerines only momentary. The northern coast of Africa can only be saved, after the complete extirpation of the Turkish soldiery, by a judicious colonial system. The haughtiness of the Barbaiy states is greater than ever. In 1817, the Algerine pirates ventured even into the North sea, and captured all the ships which did not belong to tributary powers, such as Sweden, Denmark, Portugal, or to those with which they have made treaties, as England, the United States, the Netherlands, Sardinia, Naples and France. The governments of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli have indeed promised not to treat the Christian prisoners any longer as slaves, but more like prisoners of war (see Slavetrade); but the lot of the unfortunate men who fall into their hands has not become better, on the contraiy, their treatment is much more cruel than before. The flags of the less powerful states, notwithstanding tho treaties, are seldom respected; and, in 1826, piratical fleets sailed from Algiers to capture vessels belonging to Spaniards and the subjects of the pope, &c. Against the German navigation, also, their fury has often been directed. On this account, an antipiratical confederacy has been form ed in Hamburg, and, at the meeting of the diet, a committee was appointed to propose measures for the security of German ships. Most of the powers seemed to desire the protection of England, but Baden considered it a national concern of the German confederation. For two years past, the French and Algerines have been in a state of hostility: the dispute is not yet settled. Great Britain and France, in 1819, called upon the Barbary states. in the name of all the European powers, to regard as binding the European law of nations. But the crusade, which sir Sidney Smith, as president of the antipiratical association in Paris (now dissolved), proposed to the powers of Christendom, did not take place.Of the three piratical states, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli, Algiers is the seat of the most ferocious soldiery. The arbitrary extortions of the former pachas made their government so much hated, that, in 1628, the inhabitants sent deputies to Constantinople, who persuaded Achmed I to consent to the limitation of the power of the pacha. They chose their own dey, therefore, to take charge of the finances, and left to the pacha only his salary and his rank. The pachas afterward attempting to recover their former authority, the dey Babu Ali, in 1710, caused the one then in office to be thrown into a ship, and sent to Constantinople, with the declaration, that the Algerines would no longer receive a pacha from the Porte, but would be governed by deys chosen by themselves. Achmed III appointed the then ruling dey his pacha, and thereby renounced all influence in the government of this military republic. Since that time, the grand seignior only sends occasionally a chiaux, or plenipoentiary, to Algiers, who is received with great respect, entertained, guarded, and very soon sent back again. But the personal condition of the deys is not more secure than that of their predecessors. Seldom is one so fortunate as Mohammed III, who died in 1791, after a reign of 23 years, at the age of 93. The dey Omar Pacha, who made so determined a resistance to lord Exmouth, andwho was is prudent and active as he was brave, was murdered by his soldiers, in 1817. On this account, his successor, Ali Hodya, a Turk by birth, with his family, his treasures and ministers, went by night, Nov* 2, 1817, into the strong casfle of Kiaska, or Charba (which was the residence of his predecessors till the middle of the 16th century), and, by means of the garrison, on which he could entirely rely, and his 50 cannon, held the city and the disorderly Turkish soldiery in awe. He treated the European consuls and the foreign merchants with shocking caprice and cruelty. His successor, Hussein, who seems more peacefully disposed, has also, for the sake of security, chosen this castle for his residence. The dey of Algiers has unlimited power, though assisted by a divan composed of the first ministers and officers of state. The choice of the dey depends wholly on the common soldiers. It must be unanimous ; one party, therefore, generally compel the other to a concurrence with them. The individual chosen must take the office. The new dey, to reward his adherents with places, frequently causes all the officers of his predecessor to be put to death. The dey commands in every thing except in religious affairs. He holds a court of justice every day except Thursdav and Fri day, at which all the officers are present Every case is quickly decided, and the sentences are executed on the spot. The former dey armed the natives of the country, Moors and Negroes, against his own countrymen, the Turkish soldiery, and purchased their adherence by means of the sacred treasure in the old castle, of which he had made himself master.The British government is more feared by these barbarians than any. other. They observe the treaties entered into with England; and, since the treaty of 1721, the British consul has been held in great respect in Morocco. The condition of slaves, also, in Morocco and Tripoli, has constantly been tolerable, and their ransom easy ; but, since the slavery of Christians has been abolished in Morocco, Europeans, who have fallen into the hands of Arabian and Turkish freebooters, by shipwreck or in other ways, are said to have been often murdered, if they could not be transported into the interior of Africa. Most of the Christian slaves are Italians; but the Italian states also treat the captive Moors as slaves.The state of Algiers lies between Tunis and Fez ; it contains 89,300 square miles, with 2,500,000 inhabitants. By the peace of 1816, Naples pays yearly to Algiers 24,000 dollars, and ransoms Neapolitan captives at the rate of 1000 dollars each. The ships of the U. States of America captured an Algerine frigate and brig of war in 1815, and the dey was obliged to make a treaty with the States, in which he renounced all tribute, and even gave 60,000 dollars as a compensation for the American ships which had been plundered. (See Lyman's Diplomacy. With regard to the relation of Algiers to England, see Slavetrade). 10,000 men, for the most part Turkish militia, form the army: on an emergency, 100,000 men can be brought together. The principal city, Algiers, with 80,000 inhabitants, including 10,000 Jews, lies on the sea coast, and is strongly fortified. In the provinces, the principal city is Constantina, bordering on Tunis. It is the most populous city, next to Algiers, and contains many ancient monuments. The provinces are under the despotic rule o? beys: the villages have their own sheiks if a sheik has authority over several vil lages, he is called an emir. Respecting Tunis, Tripoli, the kingdom of Fez and Morocco, the provinces of Biledulgerid and Barca, see these articles.The naval power of all the states of Northern Africa, taken together, has always been insignift cant, in comparison with the European fleets. For further information, see Blaquiere's Letters from the Mediterranean, containing a Civil and Political Account of Sicily, Tripoli, Tunis and Malta (London, 1813;) the Narrative of a ten Years' Residence at Tripoli; An Account of the Domestic Manners of the Moors, Arabs and Turks (London, 1816, 4to.; written by Richard Tully, British consul) ; Keating's Travels in Europe and Africa, with a particular Account of Morocco (London, 1816, 4to.); Macgill's Account of Tunis (Glasgow, 1811) and Shaler's Sketches of Algiers (Boston, 1826).