AUGEREAU

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AUGEREAU, Pierre Francois Charles, duke of Castiglione, marshal of France ; son of a fruit merchant; born at Paris, 1757; served as a carabinier in the French army ; went from thence into the Neapolitan service, established himself at Naples, in 1787, as a fencingmaster, and was banished thence, in 1792, with the rest of his countrymen. He served, afterwards, as a volunteer in the army of Italy, in which his talents and courage soon gained him promotion. He distinguished himself, in 1794, as general of brigade in the army of the Pyrenees, and, in 1796, as general of division in the army of Italy. He took the pass of Millesimo; made himself master, April 16, of the intrenched jamp of the Piedmontese at Ceva, afterwards of that at Casale ; threw himself on the bridge of Lodi, and carried it with the enemy's intrenchments. J une 16, he passed the Po, and made prisoners the papal troops, together with the cardinal legate and the general's staff. Aug. 1, he came to the assistance of Massena; maintained, during a whole day, a most obstinate struggle against a superior number of troops, and took the village of Castiglione, from which he derived his ducal title. Aug. 25, he passed over the Adige, and drove back the enemy as far as Roveredo. In the battle of Arcole, when the French columns wavered, A. seized a standard, rushed upon the enemy, and gained the victory. The directory bestowed this standard on him Jan. 27, 1797. Aug. 9, he was named commander of the 17th military division (division of Paris), in place of general Hatry. He was the instrument of the violent proceedings of the 18th of Fructidor, and was saluted, by the decimated legislative body, as the savior of his country. In 1799, he was chosen a member of the council of five hundred, and, therefore, resigned his command. He then obtained from the consul, Bon aparte, the command of the army in Holland. He led the French and Batavian army on the Lower Rhine to the support of Moreau, passed the river at Frankfort, and fought with the imperial general, with various success, until the battle of Hohenlinden ended the campaign. In October of 1801, being superseded by general Victor, he remained without employment till 1803, when he was appointed to lead the army, collected at Bayonne, against Portugal. When this enterprise failed, he went back to Paris, and, May 19, 1804, was named marshal of the empire, and grand officer of the legion of honor. In July of this year, the king of Spain sent him the order of Charles III. At the end of 1805, he was at the head of a corps of the great army in Germany, formed of troops collected under his command at Brest. He contributed to the successes which gave birth to the peace of Presburg, and, in March 1806, had possession of Wetzlar and the country around, until, in the autumn of this year, a new war called him to Prussia. The wounds which he received in the battle of Eylau (q. v.) compelled him to return to France. Early in 1811, Napoleon gave him the command of a corps in the army of Spain. Afterwards he returned from thence, and remained without any employment until July, 1813, when he led the army in Bavaria against Saxony, where he took part in the battle of Leipsic. At the entrance of the allies into France, his duty was to cover Lyons. Louis XVIII named him a peer. After the fall of Napoleon, A. used reproachful language respecting him in a proclamation to his army. Napoleon, therefore, on his landing in 1815, declared him a traitor. A., however, expressed himself in his favor, but took no active part in the new order of things. After the return of the king, he took his place again in the chamber of peers, sat among Ney's judges, was for a while unoccupied, and died, June 11, 1816, at his estate La Houssaye, of the dropsy.