ARCHBISHOP

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ARCHBISHOP (fromthe Greek; in Latin, archiepiscopus); a metropolitan prelate, having several suffragan bishops under him. In Catholic countries, the archiepiscopal chapters elect the ARCHBIshop, who is confirmed by the pope. The establishment of this dignity is to be traced up to the earliest times of Christianity, when the bishops and inferior clergy met in the capitals to deliberate on spiritual affairs, and the bishop of the city where the meeting was held presided. Certain honors were allowed him, the title of metropolitan particularly, on account of his residence. The synod of Antioch gave the archbishops, in the year 341, the superintendence over several dioceses, which were called their Province, and a rank above the clergy of the same, who were obliged to ask their advice in some cases. By degrees, their privileges increased; but of these the pope has retained many since the 9th century, so that only the following were left to the archbishops:jurisdiction, in the first instance, over their suffragan bishops, in cases not of a criminal nature, and appellate jurisdiction from the bishops' courts ; the right of convoking a provincial synod, which they were required to *do at least once in every three years, and the right of presiding in the same; the care of enforcing the observance of the rules of the church, of remedying abuses, of distributing indulgences; the right of devolution (q. v.), of having the cross carried before them in all parts of the province (if the pope himself or a legatus a latere is not present), and of wearing the archiepiscopal pallium (q. v.) In England are two (Protestant) archbishopsthose of Canterbury and York; the former styled primate of all England, the latter, primate of England; but with regard to the exact distinctions between these appellations, there is no little obscurity in the books of such as treat upon this subject. In ancient times j the primacy of the archbishop of Canterbury extended to Ireland, as well as England. Hence he was styled a patriarch, had the titlea of orbis Britannici pontifex, and of papa alterius orbis. He is the first peer of the realm, having precedency before all dukes not of royal birth. He crowns the sovereign, whether king or queen, and when he is invested with his archbishopric, he is said to be enthroned. The first prelates in England are his officers. He is addressed by the titles of your grace, and most reverend father in God, and writes himself by divine providence, while the bishop only writes by divine permission. His jurisdiction extends over 21 dioceses. The first archbishop of Canterbury was Austin, appointed A. D. 598, by Ethelbert, when he was converted to Christianity. Next in dignity is the archbishop of York. He takes place of all dukes not of the blood royal, and all the great officers of the crown, except the lord high chancellor of England. He crowns the queen consort. The first archbishop of York was Paulinus, ap* pointed in 622. The income of these two highest prelates of England has often been misrepresented, one party stating it too high, the other too low. It is certainly very great, though the amount cannot be ascertained. (For the immense salaries of some of the English clergy, and the scanty incomes of the largei portion, see the article Clergy.) Scotland had two archbishopsthose of St. Andrew's and Glasgow; now she has none, In Ireland, there are fourthose of Dublin, Armagh, Tuam and Cashel. In thd U. States, there is an archbishop of the Roman Catholic church, whose see is at Baltimore, and whose spiritual jurisdiction extends over all the U. States. There is, as yet, no archbishop of the Protestant Episcopal church, though there are seve ral bishops. In the year 1828, pope Leo XII appointed, after much delay, an archbishop in Colombia, whom Bolivar had proposed. Perhaps the two most important archbishops in history were those of Cologne and Mentz. These archbishops were sovereigns of a considerable country, electors of the German empire, and the two highest officers under the emperor. Till Napoleon dissolved the German empire, they played a conspicuous part in the history of the continent. In France, there are now 9 archbishops; in Spain, 8; in Portugal, 2 ; in Hungary, 3 ; in Italy, 38.